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Flanges material grades

The key material grades for pipe flanges are:

ASTM A105 (carbon steel flanges for high-temperature service)
ASTM A350 (CS flange for low temperature)
ASTM A694 (high yield carbon steel flange for line pipes)
ASTM A182 F1 to F91 (alloy steel flange)
ASTM A182 F304, F316, F321 (stainless steel flange)
ASTM A182 F51, ASTM A182 F53/55 (duplex and super duplex flange), and higher grades (Inconel, Hastelloy, Monel flange).
Non-ferrous pipe flanges (copper, cupronickel, and aluminum) are used in marine and aeronautical applications.

The pipe and the flange material shall, of course, match (according to the ASTM piping materials selection chart).

For specific applications, flanges may be coated, painted or internally lined (with Teflon, for example) to enhance the resistance of the metal to the aggression of corrosive or erosive fluids.

ASME/EN SPECIFICATIONS
The ASME B16.5 specification covers flanges for piping applications up to 24 inches in diameter, whereas the ASME B16.47 specification covers pipe flanges above 24 inches (series A and B are available).

Pipe flanges for European piping systems are covered by the EN 1092-1 specification  (weld neck flange type 11, plate flange type 01, blind flange type 05, threaded flange type 13).